This compiled Standard applies to annual periods beginning on or after 1 July 2021. Earlier application is permitted for annual periods beginning after 24 July 2014 but before 1 July 2021. It incorporates relevant amendments made up to and including 6 March 2020.
Prepared on 8 June 2021 by the staff of the Australian Accounting Standards Board.
Compilation no. 2
Compilation date: 30 June 2021
Obtaining copies of Accounting Standards
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Australian Accounting Standard AASB 102 Inventories (as amended) is set out in paragraphs 1 – Aus42.4 and Appendices A – B. All the paragraphs have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold type state the main principles. AASB 102 is to be read in the context of other Australian Accounting Standards, including AASB 1048 Interpretation of Standards, which identifies the Australian Accounting Interpretations, and AASB 1057 Application of Australian Accounting Standards. In the absence of explicit guidance, AASB 108 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors provides a basis for selecting and applying accounting policies.
Comparison with IAS 2
AASB 102 Inventories as amended incorporates IAS 2 Inventories as issued and amended by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). Australian‑specific paragraphs (which are not included in IAS 2) are identified with the prefix “Aus”. Paragraphs that apply only to not-for-profit entities begin by identifying their limited applicability.
For-profit entities complying with AASB 102 also comply with IAS 2.
Not-for-profit entities’ compliance with IAS 2 will depend on whether any “Aus” paragraphs that specifically apply to not-for-profit entities provide additional guidance or contain applicable requirements that are inconsistent with IAS 2.
Entities preparing general purpose financial statements under Australian Accounting Standards – Simplified Disclosures (Tier 2) will not be in compliance with IFRS Standards.
AASB 1053 Application of Tiers of Australian Accounting Standards explains the two tiers of reporting requirements.
Accounting Standard AASB 102
The Australian Accounting Standards Board made Accounting Standard AASB 102 Inventories under section 334 of the Corporations Act 2001 on 24 July 2015.
This compiled version of AASB 102 applies to annual periods beginning on or after 1 July 2021. It incorporates relevant amendments contained in other AASB Standards made by the AASB up to and including 6 March 2020 (see Compilation Details).
The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for inventories. A primary issue in accounting for inventories is the amount of cost to be recognised as an asset and carried forward until the related revenues are recognised. This Standard provides guidance on the determination of cost and its subsequent recognition as an expense, including any write-down to net realisable value. It also provides guidance on the cost formulas that are used to assign costs to inventories.
This Standard applies to all inventories, except:
(b) financial instruments (see AASB 132 Financial Instruments: Presentation and AASB 9 Financial Instruments); and
(c) biological assets related to agricultural activity and agricultural produce at the point of harvest (see AASB 141 Agriculture).
Notwithstanding paragraph 2, in respect of not-for-profit entities, this Standard does not apply to work in progress of services to be provided for no or nominal consideration directly in return from the recipients.
This Standard does not apply to the measurement of inventories held by:
(a) producers of agricultural and forest products, agricultural produce after harvest, and minerals and mineral products, to the extent that they are measured at net realisable value in accordance with well-established practices in those industries. When such inventories are measured at net realisable value, changes in that value are recognised in profit or loss in the period of the change.
(b) commodity broker-traders who measure their inventories at fair value less costs to sell. When such inventories are measured at fair value less costs to sell, changes in fair value less costs to sell are recognised in profit or loss in the period of the change.
The inventories referred to in paragraph 3(a) are measured at net realisable value at certain stages of production. This occurs, for example, when agricultural crops have been harvested or minerals have been extracted and sale is assured under a forward contract or a government guarantee, or when an active market exists and there is a negligible risk of failure to sell. These inventories are excluded from only the measurement requirements of this Standard.
Broker-traders are those who buy or sell commodities for others or on their own account. The inventories referred to in paragraph 3(b) are principally acquired with the purpose of selling in the near future and generating a profit from fluctuations in price or broker-traders’ margin. When these inventories are measured at fair value less costs to sell, they are excluded from only the measurement requirements of this Standard.
The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:
Inventories are assets:
(a) held for sale in the ordinary course of business;
(b) in the process of production for such sale; or
(c) in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the production process or in the rendering of services.
Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. (See AASB 13 Fair Value Measurement.)
Net realisable value refers to the net amount that an entity expects to realise from the sale of inventory in the ordinary course of business. Fair value reflects the price at which an orderly transaction to sell the same inventory in the principal (or most advantageous) market for that inventory would take place between market participants at the measurement date. The former is an entity-specific value; the latter is not. Net realisable value for inventories may not equal fair value less costs to sell.
Inventories encompass goods purchased and held for resale including, for example, merchandise purchased by a retailer and held for resale, or land and other property held for resale. Inventories also encompass finished goods produced, or work in progress being produced, by the entity and include materials and supplies awaiting use in the production process. Costs incurred to fulfil a contract with a customer that do not give rise to inventories (or assets within the scope of another Standard) are accounted for in accordance with AASB 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers.
Measurement of inventories
Inventories shall be measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value.
Notwithstanding paragraph 9, each not-for-profit entity shall measure inventories held for distribution at cost, adjusted when applicable for any loss of service potential.
Not-for-profit entities would need to use judgment in determining the factors relevant to the circumstances in assessing whether there is a loss of service potential for inventories held for distribution. For many inventories held for distribution, a loss of service potential would be identified and measured based on the existence of a current replacement cost that is lower than the original acquisition cost or other subsequent carrying amount. For other inventories held for distribution, a loss of service potential might be identified and measured based on a loss of operating capacity due to obsolescence. Different bases for determining whether there has been a loss of service potential and the measurement of that loss may apply to different inventories held for distribution within the same entity.
Cost of inventories
The cost of inventories shall comprise all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.
Notwithstanding paragraph 10 and subject to paragraph Aus10.2, not-for-profit entities shall initially measure the cost of inventories at current replacement cost where the consideration for those inventories is significantly less than fair value principally to enable the entity to further its objectives. AASB 1058 Income of Not-for-Profit Entities addresses the recognition of related amounts.
As a practical expedient, where a not-for-profit entity acquires inventory for consideration that is significantly less than fair value principally to enable the entity to further its objectives, the entity may elect to recognise an item of inventory based on an assessment of the materiality either of the individual item or of inventories at an aggregate or portfolio level.
Costs of purchase
The costs of purchase of inventories comprise the purchase price, import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable by the entity from the taxing authorities), and transport, handling and other costs directly attributable to the acquisition of finished goods, materials and services. Trade discounts, rebates and other similar items are deducted in determining the costs of purchase.
Costs of conversion
The costs of conversion of inventories include costs directly related to the units of production, such as direct labour. They also include a systematic allocation of fixed and variable production overheads that are incurred in converting materials into finished goods. Fixed production overheads are those indirect costs of production that remain relatively constant regardless of the volume of production, such as depreciation and maintenance of factory buildings, equipment and right-of-use assets used in the production process, and the cost of factory management and administration. Variable production overheads are those indirect costs of production that vary directly, or nearly directly, with the volume of production, such as indirect materials and indirect labour.
The allocation of fixed production overheads to the costs of conversion is based on the normal capacity of the production facilities. Normal capacity is the production expected to be achieved on average over a number of periods or seasons under normal circumstances, taking into account the loss of capacity resulting from planned maintenance. The actual level of production may be used if it approximates normal capacity. The amount of fixed overhead allocated to each unit of production is not increased as a consequence of low production or idle plant. Unallocated overheads are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred. In periods of abnormally high production, the amount of fixed overhead allocated to each unit of production is decreased so that inventories are not measured above cost. Variable production overheads are allocated to each unit of production on the basis of the actual use of the production facilities.
A production process may result in more than one product being produced simultaneously. This is the case, for example, when joint products are produced or when there is a main product and a by-product. When the costs of conversion of each product are not separately identifiable, they are allocated between the products on a rational and consistent basis. The allocation may be based, for example, on the relative sales value of each product either at the stage in the production process when the products become separately identifiable, or at the completion of production. Most by-products, by their nature, are immaterial. When this is the case, they are often measured at net realisable value and this value is deducted from the cost of the main product. As a result, the carrying amount of the main product is not materially different from its cost.
Other costs are included in the cost of inventories only to the extent that they are incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. For example, it may be appropriate to include non-production overheads or the costs of designing products for specific customers in the cost of inventories.
Examples of costs excluded from the cost of inventories and recognised as expenses in the period in which they are incurred are:
(a) abnormal amounts of wasted materials, labour or other production costs;
(b) storage costs, unless those costs are necessary in the production process before a further production stage;
(c) administrative overheads that do not contribute to bringing inventories to their present location and condition; and
(d) selling costs.
AASB 123 Borrowing Costs identifies limited circumstances where borrowing costs are included in the cost of inventories.
An entity may purchase inventories on deferred settlement terms. When the arrangement effectively contains a financing element, that element, for example a difference between the purchase price for normal credit terms and the amount paid, is recognised as interest expense over the period of the financing.
Cost of inventories of a service provider
Cost of agricultural produce harvested from biological assets
In accordance with AASB 141 Agriculture inventories comprising agricultural produce that an entity has harvested from its biological assets are measured on initial recognition at their fair value less costs to sell at the point of harvest. This is the cost of the inventories at that date for application of this Standard.
Techniques for the measurement of cost
Techniques for the measurement of the cost of inventories, such as the standard cost method or the retail method, may be used for convenience if the results approximate cost. Standard costs take into account normal levels of materials and supplies, labour, efficiency and capacity utilisation. They are regularly reviewed and, if necessary, revised in the light of current conditions.
The retail method is often used in the retail industry for measuring inventories of large numbers of rapidly changing items with similar margins for which it is impracticable to use other costing methods. The cost of the inventory is determined by reducing the sales value of the inventory by the appropriate percentage gross margin. The percentage used takes into consideration inventory that has been marked down to below its original selling price. An average percentage for each retail department is often used.
The cost of inventories of items that are not ordinarily interchangeable and goods or services produced and segregated for specific projects shall be assigned by using specific identification of their individual costs.
Specific identification of cost means that specific costs are attributed to identified items of inventory. This is the appropriate treatment for items that are segregated for a specific project, regardless of whether they have been bought or produced. However, specific identification of costs is inappropriate when there are large numbers of items of inventory that are ordinarily interchangeable. In such circumstances, the method of selecting those items that remain in inventories could be used to obtain predetermined effects on profit or loss.
The cost of inventories, other than those dealt with in paragraph 23, shall be assigned by using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) or weighted average cost formula. An entity shall use the same cost formula for all inventories having a similar nature and use to the entity. For inventories with a different nature or use, different cost formulas may be justified.
For example, inventories used in one operating segment may have a use to the entity different from the same type of inventories used in another operating segment. However, a difference in geographical location of inventories (or in the respective tax rules), by itself, is not sufficient to justify the use of different cost formulas.
The FIFO formula assumes that the items of inventory that were purchased or produced first are sold first, and consequently the items remaining in inventory at the end of the period are those most recently purchased or produced. Under the weighted average cost formula, the cost of each item is determined from the weighted average of the cost of similar items at the beginning of a period and the cost of similar items purchased or produced during the period. The average may be calculated on a periodic basis, or as each additional shipment is received, depending upon the circumstances of the entity.
Net realisable value
The cost of inventories may not be recoverable if those inventories are damaged, if they have become wholly or partially obsolete, or if their selling prices have declined. The cost of inventories may also not be recoverable if the estimated costs of completion or the estimated costs to be incurred to make the sale have increased. The practice of writing inventories down below cost to net realisable value is consistent with the view that assets should not be carried in excess of amounts expected to be realised from their sale or use.
Inventories are usually written down to net realisable value item by item. In some circumstances, however, it may be appropriate to group similar or related items. This may be the case with items of inventory relating to the same product line that have similar purposes or end uses, are produced and marketed in the same geographical area, and cannot be practicably evaluated separately from other items in that product line. It is not appropriate to write inventories down on the basis of a classification of inventory, for example, finished goods, or all the inventories in a particular operating segment.
Estimates of net realisable value are based on the most reliable evidence available at the time the estimates are made, of the amount the inventories are expected to realise. These estimates take into consideration fluctuations of price or cost directly relating to events occurring after the end of the period to the extent that such events confirm conditions existing at the end of the period.
Estimates of net realisable value also take into consideration the purpose for which the inventory is held. For example, the net realisable value of the quantity of inventory held to satisfy firm sales or service contracts is based on the contract price. If the sales contracts are for less than the inventory quantities held, the net realisable value of the excess is based on general selling prices. Provisions may arise from firm sales contracts in excess of inventory quantities held or from firm purchase contracts. Such provisions are dealt with under AASB 137 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets.
Materials and other supplies held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. However, when a decline in the price of materials indicates that the cost of the finished products exceeds net realisable value, the materials are written down to net realisable value. In such circumstances, the replacement cost of the materials may be the best available measure of their net realisable value.
A new assessment is made of net realisable value in each subsequent period. When the circumstances that previously caused inventories to be written down below cost no longer exist or when there is clear evidence of an increase in net realisable value because of changed economic circumstances, the amount of the write-down is reversed (ie the reversal is limited to the amount of the original write-down) so that the new carrying amount is the lower of the cost and the revised net realisable value. This occurs, for example, when an item of inventory that is carried at net realisable value, because its selling price has declined, is still on hand in a subsequent period and its selling price has increased.
Recognition as an expense
When inventories are sold, the carrying amount of those inventories shall be recognised as an expense in the period in which the related revenue is recognised. The amount of any write-down of inventories to net realisable value and all losses of inventories shall be recognised as an expense in the period the write-down or loss occurs. The amount of any reversal of any write-down of inventories, arising from an increase in net realisable value, shall be recognised as a reduction in the amount of inventories recognised as an expense in the period in which the reversal occurs.
When inventories held for distribution by a not-for-profit entity are distributed, the carrying amount of those inventories shall be recognised as an expense. The amount of any write-down of inventories for loss of service potential and all losses of inventories shall be recognised as an expense in the period in which the write-down or loss occurs. The amount of any reversal of any write-down of inventories arising from a reversal of the circumstances that gave rise to the loss of service potential shall be recognised as a reduction in the amount of inventories recognised as an expense in the period in which the reversal occurs.
Some inventories may be allocated to other asset accounts, for example, inventory used as a component of self-constructed property, plant or equipment. Inventories allocated to another asset in this way are recognised as an expense during the useful life of that asset.
The financial statements shall disclose:
(a) the accounting policies adopted in measuring inventories, including the cost formula used;
(b) the total carrying amount of inventories and the carrying amount in classifications appropriate to the entity;
(c) the carrying amount of inventories carried at fair value less costs to sell;
(d) the amount of inventories recognised as an expense during the period;
(e) the amount of any write-down of inventories recognised as an expense in the period in accordance with paragraph 34;
(f) the amount of any reversal of any write-down that is recognised as a reduction in the amount of inventories recognised as expense in the period in accordance with paragraph 34;
(g) the circumstances or events that led to the reversal of a write-down of inventories in accordance with paragraph 34; and
(h) the carrying amount of inventories pledged as security for liabilities.
Notwithstanding paragraph 36, in respect of not-for-profit entities, the financial statements shall disclose:
(a) the accounting policies adopted in measuring inventories held for distribution, including the cost formula used;
(b) the total carrying amount of inventories held for distribution and the carrying amount in classifications appropriate to the entity;
(c) the amount of inventories held for distribution recognised as an expense during the period in accordance with paragraph Aus34.1;
(d) the amount of any write-down of inventories held for distribution recognised as an expense in the period in accordance with paragraph Aus34.1;
(e) the amount of any reversal of any write-down that is recognised as a reduction in the amount of inventories held for distribution recognised as expense in the period in accordance with paragraph Aus34.1;
(f) the circumstances or events that led to the reversal of a write-down of inventories held for distribution in accordance with paragraph Aus34.1;
(g) the carrying amount of inventories held for distribution pledged as security for liabilities; and
(h) the basis on which any loss of service potential of inventories held for distribution is assessed, or the bases when more than one basis is used.
Information about the carrying amounts held in different classifications of inventories and the extent of the changes in these assets is useful to financial statement users. Common classifications of inventories are merchandise, production supplies, materials, work in progress and finished goods.
The amount of inventories recognised as an expense during the period, which is often referred to as cost of sales, consists of those costs previously included in the measurement of inventory that has now been sold and unallocated production overheads and abnormal amounts of production costs of inventories. The circumstances of the entity may also warrant the inclusion of other amounts, such as distribution costs.
Some entities adopt a format for profit or loss that results in amounts being disclosed other than the cost of inventories recognised as an expense during the period. Under this format, an entity presents an analysis of expenses using a classification based on the nature of expenses. In this case, the entity discloses the costs recognised as an expense for raw materials and consumables, labour costs and other costs together with the amount of the net change in inventories for the period.
An entity shall apply this Standard for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018. Earlier application is encouraged for periods beginning after 24 July 2014 but before 1 January 2018. If an entity applies this Standard for a period beginning before 1 January 2018, it shall disclose that fact.
[Deleted by the AASB]
AASB 2014-5 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards arising from AASB 15, issued in December 2014, amended the previous version of this Standard as follows: amended paragraphs 2, 8, 29 and 37 and deleted paragraph 19. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies AASB 15.
AASB 2010-7 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards arising from AASB 9 (December 2010) (as amended) amended the previous version of this Standard as follows: amended paragraph 2(b) and deleted paragraph 40A. Paragraph 40B, added by AASB 2010-7, was deleted by AASB 2014-1 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards. Paragraph 40D, added by AASB 2014-1 was deleted by AASB 2014-7 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standards arising from AASB 9 (December 2014). An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies AASB 9.
AASB 16 Leases, issued in February 2016, amended paragraph 12. An entity shall apply that amendment when it applies AASB 16.
Not-for-profit entities shall apply paragraph Aus9.1 and measure inventories held for distribution at cost, adjusted when applicable for any loss of service potential, on a prospective basis from the beginning of the annual period to which this Standard is first applied.
Under paragraph Aus42.1, not-for-profit entities shall make any necessary adjustment to the opening balance of inventories held for distribution, previously carried at the lower of cost and current replacement cost, against opening retained earnings for the current annual period. Accordingly, comparative information is not adjusted.
Appendix A -- Defined terms
This appendix is an integral part of AASB 102.
The following terms are also used in this Standard with the meanings specified.
A not-for-profit entity is an entity whose principal objective is not the generation of profit. A not-for-profit entity can be a single entity or a group of entities comprising the parent entity and each of the entities that it controls.
In respect of not-for-profit entities, current replacement cost is the cost the entity would incur to acquire the asset at the end of the reporting period.
In respect of not-for-profit entities, inventories held for distribution are assets:
(a) held for distribution at no or nominal consideration in the ordinary course of operations;
(b) in the process of production for distribution at no or nominal consideration in the ordinary course of operations; or
(c) in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the production process or in the rendering of services at no or nominal consideration.
A not-for-profit entity may hold inventories whose future economic benefits or service potential are not directly related to their ability to generate net cash inflows. These types of inventories may arise when an entity has determined to distribute certain goods at no charge or for a nominal amount. In these cases, the future economic benefits or service potential of the inventory for financial reporting purposes is reflected by the amount the entity would need to pay to acquire the economic benefits or service potential if this was necessary to achieve the objectives of the entity. Where the economic benefits or service potential cannot be acquired in the market, an estimate of replacement cost will need to be made. If the purpose for which the inventory is held changes, then the inventory is valued using the provisions of paragraph 9.
The replacement cost that an entity would be prepared to incur in respect of an item of inventory would reflect any obsolescence or any other impairment.
Paragraphs 10–18 and 20–27 in this Standard apply to both inventories (as defined in paragraph 6) and inventories held for distribution (as defined in paragraph Aus6.1).
Appendix B -- Australian simplified disclosures for Tier 2 entities
This appendix is an integral part of the Standard.
Paragraphs 36–39 do not apply to entities preparing general purpose financial statements that apply AASB 1060 General Purpose Financial Statements – Simplified Disclosures for For-Profit and Not-for-Profit Tier 2 Entities.
Accounting Standard AASB 102 Inventories (as amended)
Compilation details are not part of AASB 102
This compiled Standard applies to annual periods beginning on or after 1 July 2021. It takes into account amendments up to and including 6 March 2020 and was prepared on 8 June 2021 by the staff of the Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB).
This compilation is not a separate Accounting Standard made by the AASB. Instead, it is a representation of AASB 102 (July 2015) as amended by other Accounting Standards, which are listed in the table below.
Table of Standards
Table of amendments
Deleted IAS 2 text
Deleted IAS 2 text is not part of AASB 102.
IFRS 13, issued in May 2011, amended the definition of fair value in paragraph 6 and amended paragraph 7. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies IFRS 13.
This Standard supersedes IAS 2 Inventories (revised in 1993).
This Standard supersedes SIC-1 Consistency—Different Cost Formulas for Inventories.
Basis for Conclusions on AASB 2007-5
This Basis for Conclusions accompanies, but is not part of, AASB 102. The Basis for Conclusions was originally published with AASB 2007-5 Amendments to Australian Accounting Standard – Inventories Held for Distribution by Not-for-Profit Entities.
The Basis for Conclusions is provided with this Standard as a linked PDF document. See AASB Extras at right.